Skull of Homo erectus throws story of human evolution into disarray. By Ian Sample. The Guardian, October 17, 2013.
Stunning Skull Gives a Fresh Portrait of Early Humans. By Ann Gibbons. Science, Vol. 342, No. 6156 (October 18, 2013).
A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo. By David Lordkipanidze et al. Science, Vol. 342, No. 6156 (October 18, 2013). Supplementary Materials.
site of Dmanisi, Georgia, has yielded an impressive sample of hominid cranial
and postcranial remains, documenting the presence of Homo outside Africa around 1.8 million years ago. Here we report on
a new cranium from Dmanisi (D4500) that, together with its mandible (D2600),
represents the world's first completely preserved adult hominid skull from the
early Pleistocene. D4500/D2600 combines a small braincase (546 cubic
centimeters) with a large prognathic face and exhibits close morphological
affinities with the earliest known Homo
fossils from Africa. The Dmanisi sample, which now comprises five crania,
provides direct evidence for wide morphological variation within and among
early Homo paleodemes. This implies
the existence of a single evolving lineage of early Homo, with phylogeographic continuity across continents.