Wednesday, October 30, 2013

Immigration: A Bigger Problem Than You Think. By Walter Russell Mead.

Immigration: A Bigger Problem Than You Think. By Walter Russell Mead. Via Meadia, October 30, 2013.

When Class Trumps Identity. By Thomas B. Edsall.

When Class Trumps Identity. By Thomas B. Edsall. New York Times, October 29, 2013.

Bill de Blasio and the New Urban Populism. By Thomas B. Edsall. New York Times, October 22, 2013.

Israel Gets a Mixed Message on American Jews. By Shmuel Rosner.

Israel Gets a Mixed Message on American Jews. By Shmuel Rosner. New York Times, October 30, 2013.

A New Age in U.S.-Mideast Relations. By Rami G. Khouri.

A new age in U.S.-Mideast relations. By Rami G. Khouri. The Daily Star (Lebanon), October 30, 2013.

The Hidden Secret of Gezer: A Pre-Solomonic City Beneath the Ruins. By Ran Shapira.

Solomonic Gate at Gezer. Avishai Teicher/Wikimedia.

Hidden secret of Gezer: A pre-Solomonic city beneath the ruins. By Ran Shapira. Haaretz, October 24, 2013. Also here.


Several pottery vessels, a cache of cylinder seals, and a large scarab with the cartouche of King Amenhotep III attest to the existence of a previously unknown Canaanite city in the land of Israel, archaeologists say. Where was it hiding? Underneath another Canaanite city – the famous ruins of Gezer.
The scarab and other artifacts were found this summer at a level dating from the Late Bronze Age (14th century BCE) in ancient Gezer, a major Canaanite city located along the strategic coastal highway between Egypt and Mesopotamia.
The first signs that there was an unknown city lurking there were found by Dr. Steven Ortiz of the Tandy Institute for Archaeology at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, and Dr. Samuel Wolff of the Israel Antiquities Authority, who have directed the excavations at Gezer for six seasons. They believe the hidden city was destroyed during the Egyptian 18th Dynasty’s rule over the southern Levant, and the new Gezer was built on top of it.
Amenhotep III, by the way, was the father of the heretic King Akhenaten and also grandfather to Tutankhamun, whose fabulous tomb was discovered in 1922 by Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon.

Enter Reshef, the Canaanite war god
In the late Bronze Age, circa 1400 BCE, Gezer, then the capital city in the region, was burned to the ground. Possibly it was another victim of the incessant internecine warfare between the Canaanite cities at the time, as described so evocatively in the well-known Tell el-Amarna correspondence.
It was while digging into the remains of this known devastation that the momentous discoveries were made.
The inhabitants of the proto-Gezer of 1400 BCE were clearly Canaanites, said Ortiz. But artifacts found at the site indicate strong ties with Egypt.
For instance, there is the small cylinder seal found at the site, just 2.5cm in height, bearing a rare image of the Canaanite god Reshef subduing his enemies.
Reshef, a central god in the Canaanite pantheon, was – inter alia – in charge of diseases, plagues and conflagrations. In the seal he is portrayed shooting an arrow from a big bow towards about ten rivals depicted in states of submission and fall.
Worship of Reshef was common in the New Kingdom of Egypt period, says Ornan – and the cylinder seal from Gezer shows clear Egyptian influence. The miniature depiction of the god is done in the style of the awe-inspiring Egyptian embossments that show triumphs of the pharaohs.
“The question is whether the Late Bronze Age Gezerites were supporters, or subjects, of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty,” says says Prof. Tallay Ornan of the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University. “We know that during the 14th century BCE, the king of Gezer was responsible for various conflicts within the region. The Late Bronze Age destruction either represents an Egyptian campaign to subdue Gezer, or local Canaanites attacking an Egyptian stronghold at Gezer.”

That’s not a support system, that’s a city
Gezer lies between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. The archaeological team, some 80 staff and students from the U.S., Israel, the Palestinian Authority, Russia, Korea, and Hong Kong were removing a wall dating from later – the 10th century BCE, known as the Iron IIA period – and discerned a yet earlier city wall.
They had vaguely known the wall was there, but had thought it was a subterranean support system for the later Iron Age wall, Ortiz explains. “It became evident that our original interpretation was wrong,” he says. The lower wall had been built as much as 200 years earlier; the 10th century BCE wall had been built on top of it after the city's destruction by fire.
This earlier wall was one meter thick, and had several rooms attached to it. These rooms were filled with rubble nearly a meter in height, from catastrophic destruction. These earlier remains included shards from Canaanite storage jars, Philistine pottery and other items. A fragment of a Philistine figurine was also found.
Since Gezer was Canaanite, says Ortiz, the Philistine pottery either represents trade relations or a group of Philistines living among the Canaanites.

A city as dowry
As for the Egyptian influence, according to the biblical account, Gezer was conquered by an Egyptian pharaoh and was later given to Solomon as a wedding gift when the Israelite king married the pharaoh’s daughter.
Solomon is also recorded in the biblical account as having built walls around Gezer, as he did at Jerusalem, Hazor, and Megiddo, all sites currently under excavation. Excavations at Gezer have been regarded as a key to understanding and resolving the debate among biblical scholars and archaeologists regarding the appropriate chronology of events and ruling Israelite and Judahite kings.
Gezer is also famous for its massive ancient water-tunnel system, which is also currently under excavation. Last summer Dr. Tsvika Tsuk, chief archaeologist at the Israel Nature and Parks Authority, said the water system at Gezer was the largest Canaanite water system found in the country. It includes a large entrance carved in bedrock. From there, a 50-meter tunnel runs at a 39-degree slope. The tunnel is 7 meters tall and 4 meters wide.
Tsuk and his colleagues, Jim Parker, Daniel Warner, and Dennis Cole of the Old Testament and Archaeology at New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary, believe the water system was built in the Middle Bronze Age IIB (1750-1550 BCE). But it fell out of use around 1300 BCE, based on pottery found at the end of last season’s work.

Gezer Excavations Uncover Previously Unknown Canaanite City. By Robin Ngo. Bible History Daily, October 28, 2013.

Biblical City Ruins Discovered Under Ruins of Another Ancient City in Israel. By Meredith Bennett-Smith. The Huffington Post, November 21, 2013.

The history beneath Solomon’s City. By Steven Ortiz and Samuel Wolff. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, July 23, 2013.

Ancient City Discovered Beneath Biblical-Era Ruins in Israel. By Tia Ghose. LiveScience, November 16, 2013.

The backwards development of kingship in ancient Canaan. By Julia Fridman. Haaretz, October 21, 2013. Also here.

Discover Gezer, Israel’s lost city. By Aviva and Shmuel Bar-Am. The Times of Israel, October 5, 2013.

A New Gezer. By Todd Bolen. Bible Places Blog, June 28, 2006. 

Gezer Excavation Project website.

Replica of the Gezer Calendar

Gezer Revisited and Revised. By Israel Finkelstein. Tel Aviv, Vol. 29, No. 2 (September 2002).

Visiting the Real Gezer: A Reply to Israel Finkelstein. By William G. Dever. Tel Aviv, Vol. 30, No. 2 (September 2003).

The Emergence of Israel in the Twelfth and Eleventh Centuries B.C.E. By Volkmar Fritz. Translated by James W. Barker. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2011.

Tel Gezer. Video. Tim Bulkeley, October 19, 2008. YouTube.